How can schools use research

In the past few years, schools have focused more on the use of research, especially into how pupils learn and the implications on effective teaching.

One reason teachers have needed to become more research informed is to respond to the masses of misinformation presented to us. Even when a teaching approach is exposed as incorrect, it can continue to influence how we work.

One example is the learning pyramid, which is based on Edgar Dale’s cone of experience. This was a theoretical framework that made no mention of learning but soon took on a life of its own, as the learning pyramid. Most teachers will have been given information apparently based on this work – for example, that pupils only remember 5% of what they’re told but 90% of what they teach others.

A designated research lead can filter what’s out there and share the most robust evidence for their colleagues

There is not – and never has been – any evidence to support those claims and yet they still appear in continuing professional development (CPD) sessions and advice to teachers. Even when the fault in the original idea is known, it is so ingrained in “good practice” that it still holds sway; I’ve met plenty of teachers who limit how much time they spend talking to a class as a result.

Another example is the idea that pupils should be taught according to their learning style. Despite this thinking being widely criticised and evidence for it lacking, as many as 93% of teachers in the UK still hold on to this idea. In my experience, few schools ever told teachers to start teaching different learning styles; they just stopped mentioning it – so its use died out, but not necessarily the underlying belief.

Identifying what actually works

Some of these problems have arisen because research often seems to be done “to” teachers rather than with them. As Carl Hendrick and Robin Macpherson point out, “Teachers have been given answers to questions they didn’t ask and solutions to problems that never existed”.

When useful research is given to teachers, it’s usually a list of strategies divorced from their original reasoning. Take the use of lollipop sticks in the classroom, where every pupil in the class has a number, and those numbers are also written on lollipop sticks – when asking a question, you choose a stick and ask that pupil. What was originally used as a way of ensuring the same pupils don’t always answer questions is now insisted on by some schools as the only way questions should be asked.

Does this mean that we should give up on educational research? This might be tempting, but as former headteacher Tom Sherrington writes: “It’s important to develop an understanding of educational research, its scope and limitations. It’s not ‘anything goes’ or ‘whatever works for me’ – there are strong messages that emerge from the complexity.”

Sharing knowledge

So how can schools and teachers find research that’s relevant to them, identify what is rigorous and work out how it can be applied? One increasingly common solution is for the school to invest in the role of a research lead.

“Teachers do need to be research-informed but the pressure of the workload means that they don’t have the time to keep track of it all,” Macpherson said. “A designated research lead can filter what’s out there and share the most robust evidence for their colleagues. This avoids duplication of effort and improves pupil learning.”

As part of this role, Jade Slater, assistant headteacher at Walton High School, creates a newsletter each term to summarise a range of educational research and discuss its application in the classroom. She also runs optional in-house training, with the opportunity for teachers to carry out their own research on effective teaching. This encourages teachers to engage with the research of others and reflect on their own practice.

The director of teaching and learning at Wyedean School, Julie Smith, uses lesson study to develop a culture of collaboration and evaluation of effective teaching.

In my own school, our pedagogy innovation team has additional non-contact time to read research

“A collaborative approach to lesson planning and observation is enabling our staff to become more open and reflective in their discussions,” she says. The school then uses this to evaluate its evidence-informed interventions and understand what works.

Meanwhile, at St Leonard’s Academy in East Sussex, Chris Dean has been focusing on effective strategies to help with memory and sharing these approaches with pupils. They are encouraged to use techniques based on spaced practice and dual coding, and discouraged from simply re-reading and highlighting notes.

Cutting unnecessary tasks from teaching

Engaging with educational research can also help tackle the factors that are driving teachers from the profession such as marking, much of which is inefficient and may be harmful to progress. Dean told me: “We’ve thought about the research into effective feedback and have drastically reduced our expectation of the frequency of written comment marking.”

In my own school, our pedagogy innovation team has additional non-contact time to read research. We lead CPD sessions and workshops and share what we’ve learned through our school’s teaching and learning blog. Other teams also focus on specific areas of the school’s priorities, such as literacy, and share evidence of good practice with staff.

Being research-informed means we gain a better understanding of what’s likely to work. We can shake off poor advice and out-of-date ideas, and have the confidence to do what we know to be effective.

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原文地址:https://www.theguardian.com/teacher-network/2017/nov/23/how-can-we-make-research-work-harder-in-our-schools

發表時間:10日前 | 評論 (0) | 全文

teaching mixed ability lessons for science

Teaching mixed ability classes is unpopular and against the trend. A team from University College London recently attempted to investigate mixed attainment classes, but found it so uncommon that they were forced to abandon the full trial. Becky Taylor, who led the project, said schools are unwilling to embrace the model, which is perceived as risky and unconventional. Teachers and senior leaders often believe it takes more planning and that “setting” is expected by parents. Students taking undergraduate degree programmes are required to complete Work-Integrated Education (also known as a work integrated learning programme) as part of the curriculum requirement.

Indeed, sets are so deeply rooted in the language and concept of English education that rejecting it is considered rather bold – for maths and science in particular – in stark contrast to other parts of the world. In the excellent Clever Land: the Secrets Behind the Success of the World’s Education Superpowers, Lucy Crehan finds that mixed attainment grouping is common in high achieving educational systems such as Finland, Japan and Canada. There is growing evidence, too, that it may be time for a rethink – setting or streaming can have a negative overall effect on student outcomes for lower and middle attainers.

The science department at Bedales School moved away from setting in 2016. All of our classes, from year nine to year 13, are now mixed attainment. At first, there was much apprehension from colleagues and parents, and we wondered if we were doing the right thing for high attainers; arguably, when making changes like this, some students benefit and others suffer.

But for us the important question was whether more students would benefit as a result, and we agreed that they would. We were also supported by the school to introduce an extra teaching group in each year to make the classes slightly smaller wset hk .

A new toolkit of teaching skills

So how has it gone? A year into our policy of mixed attainment grouping, there are still some teachers who worry that they’re unable to move on to the new content they usually cover with a top set. But ideas are changing about how we ensure that every student is intellectually stimulated. We have evidence from people such as Ian Warwick at London Gifted and Talented showing that learning extra content is not the only way to stretch the most able – in fact it’s just one of 10 strategies, including dialogue between the student and the teacher, opportunities for independent research and self-direction.

A student in a bottom set may actually pick up a concept faster than one in a higher set, but could be limited by a lesson aimed at low attainers

We have also found we don’t need more resources for different groups of students, just an alternative approach. When I taught under a system of setting, I planned different lessons for teaching a top and bottom set the same topic; now I teach the same lessons to both levels.

By ensuring that there’s a mix of group and individual work, closed- and open-ended tasks, and that the pace of lessons is varied, I’m able to identify those who need support based on how they’re performing in that lesson, rather than on a previous test result. A student in a bottom set may actually pick up a concept faster than one in a higher set, particularly in science where we have such a range of skills, but could be limited by the design of a lesson aimed exclusively at low attainers.

In practical terms I’ve shied away from setting tasks with right or wrong answers. This prevents a student getting 100% the first time they try while another student gets 20% – a situation that is likely to reinforce the latter’s pre-existing beliefs about their own intelligence. Instead I use concept cartoons with a variety of answers, where students can identify if a conclusion is true or false in the first instance then explore that idea in different ways depending on their level of understanding. All students should feel involved in the conversation, although individuals may be working on different aspects of the task we’ve set.

It’s been challenging. Building a new toolkit of teaching skills has taken work, and I’ve certainly taught lessons where I’ve felt I haven’t stretched the high fliers or supported the lower attainers, enough. To tackle this, we’ve been working in partnership with English and maths teachers to create ways to differentiate planning for our students. It’s led to some great conversations and an influx of strategies we haven’t used before. In all our science meetings, we now share an idea or resource that’s been tried and tested hifu.

The effect on students has been positive. Science is a diverse subject that requires an immense variety of skills, and no student will always be the best, or the worst. In our mixed attainment groups, we’ve seen some of those students who would normally be in a lower ability set get a confidence boost when they pick up a new idea faster than a student who usually excels.

For those at the top end of the class, we’re stretching and challenging them by increasing the depth, rather than the breadth, of their learning. Instead of adding in extra content for the high fliers, we’re making space for any student to explore the questions covered to a range of depths, depending on how well they are picking up ideas in a particular lesson.

At this stage, demonstrating my hunch that results will improve is tricky. Not only do small cohorts mean that comparing year groups is statistically problematic, but the changes in the specifications have come along at the same time. Yet student performance has ceased to feel like a self-fulfilling prophecy. There is more variety between student results in topic tests, rather than a large gap between results for each set – individual students move up and down depending on how well they have engaged with a particular topic. There’s also much more of a “can do” attitude to learning than I’ve ever seen before, and it’s marvellous.

Emily Seeber is head of science at Bedales School.

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原文地址:https://www.theguardian.com/teacher-network/teacher-blog/2017/nov/22/ditching-the-sets-why-were-teaching-mixed-ability-lessons-for-science

發表時間:17日前 | 評論 (0) | 全文

The efficacy of detoxification

"Oil" is the daily food that people eat, so the use of it is crucial to human health, and if used improperly, it can even cause cancer.

Myth 1: hot cooking

A lot of people like to use high temperature stir fry when stir fry, get used to wait until the oil in the pan smoke to fry a dish, this kind of practice is unscientific.High temperature oil not only damages the nutrition of food, but also produces some peroxides and carcinogens.It is recommended to heat the pot before pouring the oil, then you can fry it, not to wait for the oil to smoke.A glass disposable vape pen cartridge looks extremely fascinating! It has a metallic body, which looks better when a glass cartridge is added to the posterior part! These are similar in size to that of normal cigarettes.

Myth 2: don't eat plant-based cooking oil, or don't eat animal oil

If there is no oil, it can cause vitamin deficiency in the body, and the lack of essential fatty acids, which can affect the health of the human body.The emphasis on eating only vegetable oil, not animal oil, is also not good.At a certain dose, animal oil (saturated fatty acids) is beneficial to the human body.

Myth 3: eat only one type of oil for a long time

Now, Fried average household is difficult to do with what kind of food oil, but several we recommend best match alternately edible oil, or for a period of time in a kind of oil, the next period of time in another oil, because there are few a oil can solve the problem of all oil needs.

Myth 4: people with abnormal blood lipids, or people who are not normal weight, do not have a different kind of oil

For people with abnormal blood lipids or abnormal body weight, we are more focused on high monounsaturated fats in vegetable oils.In the quantity of oil, also control.People with blood lipid and body weight should be controlled at least 25 grams per day, and polyunsaturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids are almost evenly split.And the crowd that the elderly, dyslipidemia, obesity crowd, the crowd obesity related diseases or have a family history of obesity crowd, they each use the oil to lower every day, even down to 20 grams.

1. Can regulate the gastrointestinal function

The catechins of qingmei can promote peristalsis in the intestines, and have a significant effect on constipation (especially pregnant women) and diarrhea.When you make your book hong kong hotel , Guangdong Hotel Hong Kong offers comprehensive professional service to you including high-speed FREE wifi. We encourage people contact their families and friends via social media when they are outside home.

2. The efficacy of detoxification

When harmful ingredients such as additives and pesticide residues in food enter the body, they are discharged through the detoxification of the liver and kidneys.The active substances contained in green plum fruit can improve the detoxification function of the liver and enhance the human body's ability to detoxify, detoxify, and blood poison.Summer is the high season of kidney stones, and qingmei has the effect of preventing stone.Because it contains rich citric acid, and the calcium in blood is easy to dissolve after combining with citric acid, the formation of calculi can be reduced.

3. It can prevent aging and aging

, drinking greengage flavor acid in the drink can stimulate salivary gland to secrete more parotid gland, parotid gland hormone can promote metabolism, delay aging, let a female rosy, gloss of skin, make skin tissue and blood vessels tend to be younger, have obvious "rejuvenation" effect.

Green plum wine can be drunk year-round.Cold drinks (with ice), hot drinks (heating), and drinking before or after a meal are appropriate.Add orange juice, lemon juice, Sprite, soda, and other colorful cocktails.A large amount of polyphenols in green plum wine can also inhibit the accumulation of fat, and have a good effect on weight loss 香港之最.

 

發表時間:23日前 | 評論 (0) | 全文

Families warned they may lose children's health coverage

Families warned they may lose children's health coverage
State officials in Virginia started warning families this week that the popular Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) is about to run out of money.Plan a unique hong kong tour for your clients with PartnerNet's useful travel tips, and various tourist information such as Chinese customs and traditions.
It’s one of several states that have given notice or are preparing to tell families that funding for the program has ended and Congress has failed to renew it.
For many families, that could mean an end to their health care unless they find someone to offer free care to their kids, according to Linda Nablo, chief deputy director at Virginia's Department of Medical Assistance Services.
“I would say most families, their children will go without insurance,” Nablo said.
CHIP is a joint state-federal health insurance plan for low-income kids who don’t have health insurance any other way. Funding varies from state to state but most of the money comes from the federal government.
Federal funding for the program ran out in September and Congress has failed to renew it. The continuing resolution passed last week keeps the federal government open for business until December 22 and it included a patch for CHIP, but that was just to move money from

states that have not yet run out of cash to states whose CHIP programs were about to go broke.
Related: Stopgap spending plan leaves out CHIP kids’ health plan=
Virginia’s program, known as FAMIS (Family Access to Medical Insurance Security), runs out of money in February.
“We are hopeful that Congress will once again provide the funding to continue this program. However, because Congress has not acted yet, we need to let you know that there is a chance the FAMIS programs may have to shut down,” the Virginia letter reads.
“We think of it as an informational letter,” Nablo added. “We are trying to give families information if they need to do something for their child. We are trying to give them as much time as we can to understand what’s going on, ask their questions, make whatever decisions they have to make and prepare to what extent they can.”
“If you have got a medical situation — if your child has cancer, or is in the middle of chemo or is in the hospital or needs surgery, I’d want to know as soon as possible.”
Families should get in any medical visits they can, while they can, the letter advises them.
“If any FAMIS members need medical or dental care, make an appointment to visit your doctor or dentist before January 31,” it suggests. Putting emphasis on quality learning and teaching together with knowledge transfer, PolyU firmly believes that research study is a significant component of academic life on university campus.

Related: Mandate repeal could have big health effects
“So if your child’s healthy and they don’t need a doctor’s visit or a dentist visit anytime soon then hopefully this letter is just information for you,” Nablo said.
“It is truly shameful that gridlock and dysfunction in Congress have left nearly 70,000 Virginians who depend on the FAMIS program hanging in limbo,”Va. Governor Terry McAuliffe, a Democrat, said in a statement.
Other families may need to act now. If they want to sign up for health insurance on the Affordable Care Act exchange, for instance, they have until December 15 to do so.
Some may need to investigate free or subsidized clinics.
“If you have got a medical situation — if your child has cancer, or is in the middle of chemo or is in the hospital or needs surgery — I’d want to know as soon as possible, and be talking to people about what might be possible,” Nablo said.
The hangup in funding CHIP is partly over how to pay for the it. Republicans and Democrats disagree on whether to cut other programs. But it’s also a casualty of confusion, says Wisconsin Democratic Rep. Mark Potan.
“Congress can’t walk or chew gum on its own or at the same time,” Potan told NBC News. “People look at this and they think Congress is a big old cluster and that these guys can’t govern and they’re right.”
Related: House tax bill would kill medical deductions
Enerica Rodriguez of Dallas is watching what happens anxiously. She’s got a 13-year-old son with ADHD and a 10-year-old daughter with eczema. Both have asthma, too, and she estimates their monthly medical costs run $800.
“The asthma inhaler and the treatment, they are pretty expensive too.” said Rodriguez. “Without CHIP, I wouldn’t be able to take my daughter to the dermatologist.”
Rodriguez, who works at a dry cleaner, and her husband, a painter, buy coverage on an Affordable Care Act exchange but say adding their children to the plan would be prohibitively expensive. “It wouldn’t cover their medications,” she said.
“Congress can’t walk or chew gum on its own or at the same time.”

Their 21-year-old son is already on his own, Rodriguez said. “We just work hard to provide our income and to have a decent living. We aren’t rich people,” she said. “By them taking away CHIP, it’s going to be very hard.”
Tommie Ogletree of Lewisville, Texas, depends on CHIP to cover two of her three children. She is hoping Congress will pay for the program, which covers 9 million children nationally.
“I would lose everything,” she said. “We cannot afford to give them private insurance. It’s just not feasible for us. Everything is so expensive in the health care industry,” she added.
Related: Millions of kids may lose health insurance
Her son Bradley, 10, must carry an EpiPen because of a deadly allergy to bee stings.
“With one EpiPen it costs $500. But because we have CHIP it costs $35 for my son’s EpiPen,” Ogletree said LPG M6.
“We don’t have to worry about what other bills are going to come in because of CHIP.”
Other states will send letters soon to families. Connecticut plans to start mailing letters December 15th, according to David Dearborn of the Connecticut Department of Social Services. Utah will send one at the end of December a Department of Health spokesman said.
Twelve governors from both parties wrote Congress on Monday urging it to act.
“Since its creation, CHIP has enjoyed strong bipartisan support,” they wrote.
“We encourage you to work across the aisle to find common ground that will allow this important program to continue and give the families who rely on CHIP the peace of mind of knowing that their children will be able to get the health care they need in the new year.”

發表時間:2017年12月15日 | 評論 (0) | 全文