The Renaissance everywhere


And since history thus conceived does not represent progress but a circle, and is not directed by the historical law of development, but by the natural law of the circle, which gives it regularity and uniformity, it follows that the historiography of the Renaissance, like the Gr?co-Roman, has its end outside itself, and affords nothing but material suitable for exhortations toward the useful and the good, for various forms of pleasure or as ornament for abstract truths. Historians and theorists of history are all in agreement as to this, with the exception of such eccentrics as Patrizzi, who expressed doubts as to the utility of knowing what had happened and as to the truth itself of narratives, but ended by contradicting himself and also laying[Pg 238] down an extrinsic end. "Each one of us can find, both on his own account and on that of the public weal, many useful documents in the knowledge of these so different and so important examples," writes Guicciardini in the proem to his History of Italy. "Hence will clearly appear, as the result of innumerable examples, the instability of things human, how harmful they are often wont to be to themselves, but ever to the people, the ill-conceived counsels of those who rule, when, having only before their eyes either vain errors or present cupidities, they are not mindful of the frequent variations of fortune, and converting the power that has been granted them for the common weal into an injury to others, they become the authors of new perturbations, either as the result of lack of prudence or of too much ambition dermes."

And Bodin holds that non solum pr?sentia commode explicantur, sed etiam futura colliguntur, certissimaque rerum expetendarum ac fugiendarum pr?cepta constantur, from historical narratives. Campanella thinks that history should be composed ut sit scientiarum fundamentum sufficiens; Vossius formulates the definition that was destined to appear for centuries in treatises: cognitio singularium, quorum memoriam conservari utile sit ad bene beateque vivendum. Historical knowledge therefore seemed at that time to be the lowest and easiest form of knowledge (and this view has been held down to our own days); to such an extent that Bodin, in addition to the utilitas and the oblectatio, also recognized to history facilitas, so great a facility ut, sine ullius artis adjumento, ipsa per sese ab omnibus intelligatur. When truth had been placed outside historical narrative, all the historians of the Renaissance, like their Greek and Roman predecessors, practised, and all the theorists[Pg 239] (from Pontanus in the Actius to Vossius in the Ars historica) defended, the use of more or less imaginary orations and exhortations, not only as the result of bowing to ancient example, but through their own convictions. Eventually M. de la Popelinière, in his Histoire des histoires, avec l'idée de l'histoire accomplie (1599), where he inculcates in turn historical exactitude and sincerity with such warm eloquence, suddenly turns round to defend imaginary harangues et concions, for this fine reason, that what is necessary is 'truth' and not 'the words' in which it is expressed Neo skin lab!

The truth of history was thus not history, but oratory and political science; and if the historians of the Renaissance were hardly ever able to exercise oratory (for which the political constitution of the time allowed little scope), all or nearly all were authors of treatises upon political science, differently inspired as compared with those of the Middle Ages, which had ethical and religious thought behind them, resuming and advancing the speculations of Aristotle and of ancient political writers. In like manner, treatises on historical art, unknown to the Middle Ages, but which rapidly multiplied in the Renaissance (see a great number of them in the Penus artis historic? of 1579), resumed and fertilized the researches of Gr?co-Roman theorists. It is to be expected that the historiography of this period should represent some of the defects of medieval historiography in another form, owing to its character of reaction already mentioned and to the new divinity that it had raised up upon the altars in place of the ancient divinity, humanity reenex facial.

reveals its effort to oppose the one term to the other, and since scholasticism had sought the things of God and of the soul, it wished to restrict itself to the[Pg 240] things of nature. We find Guicciardini and a chorus of others describing the investigations of philosophers and theologians and "of all those who write things above nature or such as are not seen" as 'madnesses'; and because scholasticism had defined science in the Aristotelian manner as de universalibus, Campanella opposed to this definition his Scientia est de singularibus. In like manner its men of letters, prejudiced in favour of Latin, at first refused to recognize the new languages that had been formed during the Middle Ages, as well as medieval literature and poetry; its jurists rejected the feudal in favour of the Roman legal code, its politicians representative forms in favour of absolute lordship and monarchy.

發表時間:5月10日 | 評論 (0) | 全文

cause for the wildest hurricanes

In the North Atlantic we have the great Gulf163 Stream, which sweeps from equatorial regions into the Gulf of Mexico, and thence across the Atlantic to the shores of Western Europe. In the South Indian Ocean there is the ‘south equatorial current,’ which sweeps past Mauritius and Bourbon, and thence returns towards the east. In the Chinese Sea there is the north equatorial current, which sweeps round the East Indian Archipelago, and then merges into the Japanese current. There is also the current in the Bay of Bengal, flowing through the region in which, as we have seen, cyclones are commonly met with. There are other sea-currents besides these which yet breed no cyclones. But I may notice two peculiarities in the currents I have named. They all flow from equatorial to temperate regions, and, secondly, they are all ‘horse-shoe currents.’ So far as I am aware, there is but one other current which presents both these peculiarities—namely, the great Australian current between New Zealand and the eastern shores of Australia. I have not yet met with any record of cyclones occurring over the Australian current, but heavy storms are known to prevail in that region, and I believe that when these storms have been studied as closely as the storms in better-known regions, they will be found to present the true cyclonic character engineering innovation.

Now, if we inquire why an ocean current travelling from the equator should be a ‘storm-breeder,’ we shall find a ready answer. Such a current, carrying the warmth of intertropical regions to the temperate zones,164 produces, in the first place, by the mere difference of temperature, important atmospheric disturbances. The difference is so great, that Franklin suggested the use of the thermometer in the North Atlantic Ocean as a ready means of determining the longitude, since the position of the Gulf Stream at any given season is almost constant.

But the warmth of the stream itself is not the only cause of atmospheric disturbance. Over the warm water vapour is continually rising; and, as it rises, is continually condensed (like the steam from a locomotive) by the colder air round. ‘An observer on the moon,’ says Captain Maury, ‘would, on a winter’s day, be able to trace out by the mist in the air the path of the Gulf Stream through the sea.’ But what must happen when vapour is condensed? We know that to turn water into vapour is a process requiring—that is, using up—a large amount of heat; and, conversely, the return of vapour to the state of water sets free an equivalent quantity of heat. The amount of heat thus set free over the Gulf Stream is thousands of times greater than that which would be generated by the whole coal supply annually raised in Great Britain. Here, then, we have an efficient dermes .

For, along the whole of the Gulf Stream, from Bemini to the Grand Banks, there is a channel of heated—that is, rarefied air. Into this channel, the denser atmosphere on both sides is continually pouring, with greater or less strength. When a storm begins in the Atlantic, it always makes165 for this channel, ‘and, reaching it, turns and follows it in its course, sometimes entirely across the Atlantic.’ ‘The southern points of America and Africa have won for themselves,’ says Maury, ‘the name of “the stormy capes,” but there is not a storm-find in the wide ocean can out-top that which rages along the Atlantic coasts of North America. The China seas and the North Pacific may vie in the fury of their gales with this part of the Atlantic, but Cape Horn and the Cape of Good Hope cannot equal them, certainly in frequency, nor do I believe, in fury.’ We read of a West Indian storm so violent, that ‘it forced the Gulf Stream back to its sources, and piled up the water to a height of thirty feet in the Gulf of Mexico. The ship “Ledbury Snow” attempted to ride out the storm. When it abated she found herself high up on the dry land, and discovered that she had let go her anchor among the tree-tops on Elliot’s Key166 Neo skin lab. ‘

發表時間:4月20日 | 評論 (0) | 全文

catastrophic trap


It has often been pointed out—and with perfect justice—that in shelling open and undefended towns, and even a commercial port like Hartlepool that did have a 6-inch gun or two to defend it, the Germans were employing their fleet to no immediate military purpose whatever.243 It has been suggested that there might have been the very excellent military object of keeping our battle-cruisers in home waters and so securing Von Spee a free hand abroad. What has not been so often insisted on is that had there been any military centre, fort, or magazine worth attack, the fugitive character of the bombardments robbed them of any probable hope of hitting it apartment hong kong.

There have been ample experiences during this war of ships bombarding distant objects on shore. And it is finally proved to be one of the most difficult operations conceivable. The case of the Koenigsberg was altogether exceptional. And many as were the difficulties to be faced in that action, there was yet this favourable element present, that the people in the aeroplanes could not possibly make any mistake as to the target that was to be bombarded, nor from the fact that it was a small ship lying in a considerable expanse of water could the observers, spotting all the different rounds, fail to give to the fire-control parties on board very accurate indications how to correct their sights for the next round. At the Dardanelles when isolated forts were attacked on a point on land, where one ship could lie off nearly at right angles to the line of fire and mark the fall of shot and the firing ship correct the fire for line, exact corrections of the same character as at the Rufigi were made possible. But when it came to correcting the fire by captive balloons and aircraft, when forts and gun positions had to be picked out in the folds of the hills, and still more where forts had to be engaged with no other corrections than the men in the control tops of the firing ship could supply, it became practically impossible to ensure sustained effective firing Hong Kong tour.

When, therefore, the German ships lay off Lowestoft, Hartlepool, Whitby, and Scarborough and bombarded244 for half an hour or so without any attempt to select particular targets, or if such were selected, to adopt any scientific means of directing their fire on to them, it became perfectly clear that their military object was about as defined as that of midnight bombing raids with Zeppelins. One is driven to the conclusion, therefore, that the primary object of these adventures was mere frightfulness, and that perhaps the secondary object was to draw the pursuing ships into some .
CHAPTER XVII The Action off the Dogger Bank
The two bombardments of the early winter of 1914 have been variously explained. They may have been meant to force us to keep our main forces concentrated: or simply to cheer up the Germans and depress our people. Both were organized so that the German squadron could start its race for home within an hour of daybreak.

發表時間:4月6日 | 評論 (0) | 全文

For fourteen months

By permitting this, we showed that our policy, in other words, was not to attack but to wait attack, and then not to do anything to compel the enemy to attack. Our sea statesmen had not indoctrinated the civil government with a clearly defined policy that it was prepared to enforce at the opening of hostilities. Yet in a matter of this kind it was exactly at the opening of hostilities that a stringent blockade, accompanied by a generous rationing of sea supplies to the neutrals bordering on Germany, could have been proclaimed and enforced with the least friction. For, in the first place, Germany’s declaration of war was so entirely unprovoked and sudden, and her first measure of war, the invasion of Belgium—when her soldiery became58 at once outrageous—combined the world over to create a neutral opinion strongly in favour of the Allies. Next, the fact that Great Britain’s participation in the war was both professedly and actually in loyalty to the identical obligation to Belgium which Germany had violated, predisposed America, for the first time since the colonies proclaimed their independence, to an active sympathy with the British ideal, perhaps because for the first time that ideal appeared to them to be one that was purely chivalrous Load Balancer.

It was then everything that the psychological moment should have been seized. Nor could it have been difficult to see that, if the opportunity was allowed to slip by, the mere fact that a half measure—to wit, the suspense of German shipping—had been enforced, must lead to a new condition, namely, a hugely magnified trade through the neutral ports. This trade, it is true, was nominally confined to goods that were not contraband of war. But contraband is an elastic term, and, to make things worse, the British Government proclaimed its intention—so little had war-trained thought prepared its policy—of accepting the provisions of the unexecuted Declaration of London as defining what contraband was to be. This gave the enemy the liberty to import materials indispensable to his manufacture of munitions and of armament, was one of which full advantage was taken Research project.

It was bad enough that cotton, indispensable ores, the raw materials of glycerine as well as the finished product, were poured into the laboratories, the factories, and the arsenals of Germany without stint or limit. It was, if possible, worse that this traffic created gigantic exporting interests in America which, once vested, made the restriction of them wear the appearance of an intolerable hardship when, many months too late, more stringent measures were59 taken. So powerful indeed had these interests become, that the real and rigid blockade which, under the doctrines of the “continuous voyage” and the “ultimate destination” would from the first have been fully consonant with international law, was actually never attempted at all until the United States themselves became belligerents reenex.


then, we witnessed a state of things so paradoxical as to be without parallel in history. It was our professed creed that the fleet existed to seize and control sea communications. The enemy conceded us this control and, so far from using it to straiten him so relentlessly that he would have no choice but to fight for relief from it, we actually permitted him to draw, through sources absolutely under our control, for essentials in the form of overseas supplies that he needed in a war which all the world realized must now be a prolonged one. The traditional naval policy of the country was thus not reflected in the action of the country’s government, because that policy had no representation in the Navy’s counsels. There is, perhaps, no single heresy for which so high and disastrous a price has been paid.

發表時間:3月30日 | 評論 (0) | 全文

The real significance of the death of Jesus

It is not necessary here to quote further in detail the sayings of Jesus which indicate that He foreknew the violent death which He was destined to suffer. He assured James and John, when they sought places of honor and power in His Kingdom, that they were not able to drink the cup that He had to drink, or to be baptized with the baptism with which He was to be baptized. And at the last supper, when He instituted the ordinance we call now the sacrament. He said of the broken bread, "Take, eat; this is my body;" and of the cup, "Drink ye all of it; for this is my blood of the new testament, which is shed for many for the remission of sins Application Delivery Controller." From these statements, it is apparent that certain facts were clearly understood by Jesus, and that He endeavored as clearly to teach them to His disciples. These points are four, and you should try to remember them. First, Jesus foreknew and {274} proclaimed that the hatred of His enemies—the scribes and the Pharisees and the rulers in general—would finally bring about His death. Then, He knew equally well, and asserted with the same assurance, that His death was divinely appointed. Again, He assured His disciples that if they would gain places of honor in His kingdom, they too must be prepared to practice self-denial, to humble themselves and render service, and even, if necessary, to lay down their own lives for the Gospel's sake. Finally, Jesus announced that, through His death, mankind would be redeemed from sin, and that His death was therefore not a defeat but a glorious victory.

Worldly views of how Jesus's death can save.

These teachings are certainly inspiring and hopeful. The last one is particularly consoling. But, of course, it is only natural to ask, From what does the death of Christ actually deliver us? How can His death deliver us from sin? These questions have been asked by men ever since the crucifixion. It is almost amusing what strange notions people have held—and do still hold—in answer to these questions. Thus, some people believe that the death of Jesus represented the price paid to Satan to prevail upon him to release man from his power. Others believe that when Jesus gave His life for many, it was to protect them, or deliver them, from the fear of death. Still others hold that through His death Jesus broke the bonds that held His disciples to the belief and understanding that God's kingdom, was an earthly and temporal kingdom, and that the salvation which Jesus taught was earthly State Key Laboratory. Of course, no one of these theories—nor any one of several others not here mentioned—satisfies the conditions of the sacrifice made by Jesus. It does not really reveal from what {275} His death rescues us, nor how it is possible for His death to rescue us at all.


It is strange that there should be so much confusion about the nature and purpose of Jesus's atoning sacrifice. It is well known that through the sin of Adam, death came into the world. That death was not only physical but spiritual; for man was driven out from the presence of God. Adam broke a divine law. Necessarily, punishment, came to him. Now, in accordance with the law of justice, Adam and his children could be redeemed from death, and restored to the presence of God, only by satisfying in some way the broken law. How could that be done? We have learned, you remember, that there was a council in heaven before the earth was formed. There the whole plan of salvation was revealed. Jesus was appointed to become the Christ. His mission was to teach men to know God, that they might be prepared to return to Him, and through His own death to satisfy the demands of justice and thus to break the bands of physical death. This may, perhaps, be a little difficult to understand, but it is certainly what Jesus taught; for the learned Paul wrote, "If in this life only we have hope in Christ, we are of all men most miserable. But now is Christ risen from the dead, and become the first fruits of them that slept. For since by man came death, by man came also the resurrection of the dead. For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive. But every man in his own order: Christ the first fruits; afterward they that are Christ's at His coming." This, too, is the testimony of John the Baptizer, who exclaimed when he saw Jesus approaching from the distance, "Behold {276} the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world;" and also of John the Beloved, who wrote in his Book of Revelation, "All that dwell upon the earth shall worship Him, whose names are not written in the book of life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world SAN storage."

發表時間:3月14日 | 評論 (0) | 全文

He was now no longer a novillero

A celebrated master ceded his sword and muleta to him in the full circus in Seville, the crowd were nearly mad with delight, seeing how he killed with one sword thrust the first "formal"[62] bull which was placed before him. The following month this doctorate of tauromachia was countersigned in the Plaza in Madrid, where another no less celebrated master gave him "la Alternativa" in a corrida of bulls from Muira.
; he was a recognized matador, and his name figured on the placards by the side of all the old espadas, whom he had admired as unapproachable divinities, in the days when he went through the little towns taking part in the "capeas." He remembered having waited for one of them at a station near Cordova to beg a little help from him as he passed with his cuadrilla dermes hk. That night he had something to eat, thanks to the fraternal generosity existing between the people of the pigtail, and which made an espada living in princely luxury give a duro and a cigar to the needy wretch who was trying his first "capeas."

Engagements began to pour in to the new espada. In[Pg 85] all the Plazas of the Peninsula they were curious to see him. The professional papers popularized his portrait and his life, not without adding romantic episodes to this latter. No matador had as many engagements as he had, and it would not be long before he made a fortune HIFU.

Antonio, his brother-in-law, viewed this success with scowling brow and grumbling protests to his wife and his mother-in-law. The fellow was ungrateful; it was the way of all those who rose too rapidly. Just think how he had worked for Juan! How obstinately he had discussed matters with Managers when they were arranging the runs of Novillos !... And now that he was "Maestro" he had taken for agent a certain Don José, whom he scarcely knew, who did not belong in any way to the family, and for whom Gallardo had taken a great affection simply because he was an old amateur.

He will suffer for it; he ended by saying: "One can only have one family. Where will he meet with affection like ours, who have known him since his earliest childhood? So much the worse for him! With me, he would have been like the real Roger...."

But here he stopped short, swallowing the rest of the famous name, from fear of the laughter of the banderilleros and amateurs who frequented the matador's house, and who had not been slow in noticing this historical adoration of the saddler's.

Gallardo, with the good nature of a successful man, had endeavoured to give his brother-in-law some compensation, entrusting him with the supervision of the house he was building. He gave him carte-blanche for all expenses, for the espada, bewildered with the ease with which money was pouring into his hands, was not sorry his brother-in-law should make a profit, and he was pleased to make it up to him in this way for not having retained him as agent Office Furniture.

發表時間:2月28日 | 評論 (0) | 全文